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Environmental Assessment

Coastal Zone and Watershed Management

Marine Environmental Management

Marine Pollution Management

Environmental Management


Marine Pollution Management

Since the early 1970’s, there has been widening public recognition that the oceans do not provide an infinite means of disposal of wastes, but have a finite assimilative capacity. This is true not only for limited coastal seas, but also for the large open ocean areas. In response, many governments have acceded to a series of international conventions serving to provide limits on pollution from marine sources, such as shipping, dumping of industrial wastes and contaminated dredged sediments and discharges from offshore oil and gas drilling. Examples include** :

Recent Projects

Canada: Environmental Assessment of Proposed Halifax Regional Sewage Treatment System

Canada: Dartmouth Cove (Halifax, Nova Scotia) Sewage Treatment and Diversion Project

Canada: Environmental Assessment of Proposed Sewage Treatment Collection and Treatment System, Newfoundland

China: Ship Waste Management

Indonesia: Port Environmental Improvement Project

Philippines: Maritime Environmental Improvement Project

Caribbean: Organization of Eastern Caribbean States: Solid and Ship-generated Waste Management Project: Model Policy, Legislation and Regulations Study

  • International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78);
  • International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties (INTERVENTION), 1969;
  • Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (LDC), 1972 and the Protocol of 1996;
  • International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC 1990) and the Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances, 2000 (HNS Protocol);
  • International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (AFS), 2001;
  • International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004
To address the requirements of these Conventions, Land & Sea Environmental Consultants has worked with shipping and port authorities to develop management and pollution prevention programs. Activities include: planning for ship waste reception and disposal, planning and protocols for oil spill response at terminals and small-volume oil handling facilities, port waste auditing and management, institutional capacity assessment and enhancement and policy/regulations development.

Key in each case has been assessment of needs and development of a planning and response format within an environmental management structure. This enables the shipping company or port authority to ensure due diligence in all aspects of their operations and provision of an auditable trail of information and documentation.

** For more information on these and other conventions, see (Marine Environment)


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