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Environmental Assessment

Coastal Zone and Watershed Management

Marine Environmental Management

Marine Pollution Management

Environmental Management


Coastal Zone and Watershed Management

The movement of water has long been recognized as a major mode of transport for contaminants (both natural and man-made) from land to the seas. As activities occur on land, contaminants can be transferred to the adjacent coastal waters and thence to the open ocean. While contaminants are often thought to be chemical substances, this category also includes introduction of pathogens and bacteria, organic debris and eroded soils. Our understanding of the role of water is reflected in the extensive body of knowledge and literature assessing transport via natural flows (streams, rivers) or via natural run-off of stormwater and other precipitation events. Since the early 1970’s, the role of human interventions has also become the subject of considerable study, including discharge of sanitary sewage, the discharge from urban stormwater and industrial drainage systems. More recently, the role of marine near-shore inputs, including disposal of dredged materials and discharges from shipping have been recognized and evaluated.

During this same period, management of activities within a watershed to reduce the entry and transport of contaminants was becoming a reasonably established practice. Farmers were urged to control soil (with associated pesticides and nutrients) erosion; municipalities were urged to control their garbage dumps and landfills; disposal of other solid and liquid wastes can under more control and regulation. The management schemes began to consider not only one source, but also the multitude of sources and activities that could impact on river and lake water quality.

In parallel, the management of pollution in coastal zones was introduced. To manage pollution from marine sources, a series of international conventions, such as the Convention On The Prevention Of Marine Pollution By Dumping Of Wastes And Other Matter (London Convention of 1972 and 1996 Protocol) (see, the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC ’91) and the associated Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to Pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS Protocol of 2000) (see have been implemented world-wide. In parallel, the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (see sets guidelines and management goals for wastes from land sources entering the coastal environment.

Now many countries, particularly Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have recognized that watersheds and the coastal zones are interconnected and therefore management of contamination must be an integrated system. Staff of Land & Sea Environmental, combining expertise in coastal oceanography and environmental chemistry can assist Clients in all stages of environmental management of watersheds and coastal zone. Activities can include policy development, evaluation of institutional capacity, development and delivery of training programs and development of contaminant monitoring programs, for both compliance and long-term environmental effects monitoring. Our coastal management experience was developed in Atlantic Canada and has been augmented by coastal projects in numerous island countries.

Recent Projects

Canada: Environmental Management Plan for Baie de Lameque, NB to Address Nutrient Accumulation and Dispersion

Canada Bayside Port Expansion

Eastern Caribbean States Waste Management Policy and Legislation

Cameroon: Gas to Energy Project

Mill River (PEI) Canada Watershed Management Plan

Saint Lucia: Coastal Zone Management Strategy - Phase 1

Saint Lucia: Coastal Zone Management Strategy - Phase 2

Canada: Dredged Material Management, Saint John Port Authority, NB

Caribbean: Organization of Eastern Caribbean States: Solid and Ship-generated Waste Management Project: Model Policy, Legislation and Regulations Study

National Programme of Action for Pollution of Marine Environment From Land-based Activities Facilitation of Environment Canada Actions Workshop


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